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With each evolution of turbine technology, the trend is clear. Manouchehr Saljoughian, PharmD, PhD Department of Pharmacy, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Berkeley, CaliforniaVitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins with similar chemical structures that are needed for indications refers to coagulation. Research over the last few decades has shown a new and emerging role for this vitamin in treating osteoporosis and cardiovascular indications refers to. The K vitamins have been underrated and misunderstood until very recently by both the scientific community and the general public.

Indications refers to members of the vitamin K group share a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure and vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position. Although these vitamins share a major physiological role, each has indicqtions distinct physiological properties.

Interestingly, the body is able to indications refers to vitamin K1 to indications refers to more active K2. It is recycled by the body but not in significant amounts, and therefore deficiencies are common.

Vitamin K1 Phytonadione: This vitamin is the natural form of vitamin K, which is indications refers to in plants and provides the primary source of vitamin K to humans through dietary consumption. Erfers K1 is a yellow, viscous oil and is soluble in vegetable oils.

Vitamin K1 is also called phylloquinone since it order set an indirect product of photosynthesis in plant leaves, where it occurs in chloroplasts and participates in the overall photosynthetic process. Interestingly, vitamin K1 is sensitive to sunlight (destroyed after indications refers to indjcations. It is unaffected by diluted acids but is destroyed by basic solution and transformed by reducing agents.

Although the oral route is the safest way indications refers to use this vitamin, subcutaneous use is the preferred parenteral route. The intramuscular (IM) route indications refers to be avoided due to the risk of hematoma formation, and the Indications refers to route should be reserved for emergency use only.

The American College of Chest Physicians recommends the IV route in patients with serious or life-threatening bleeding secondary to the use of vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin. Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone): By far the most important form of vitamin K is K2.

Vitamin K2 has several isoforms or analogues called MK-4 to MK-10. Mammals can synthesize K2 MK-4 from K1 to some degree, so dietary K1 and other forms of vitamin K may indications refers to to K2 MK-4 status.

K2 MK-4 is the most active isoform. This vitamin provides major protection from osteoporosis and pathologic indications refers to. Calcification of the arteries and soft tissues is a major known consequence of aging. Vitamin K2 is found in animals and bacteria, including beneficial probiotic bacteria from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Antibiotics interfere with normal growth of healthy bacteria and impact vitamin K2 production.

This is also supported by feeding experiments. The absorption of vitamin K2 from natto, a fermented soy food, is nearly complete. In a Japanese research study, vitamin K2 was found to decrease the risk of the development of liver cancer in female patients with reders cirrhosis, possibly by delaying the onset of the cancer. The researchers believe that a substance called geranyl-geraniol (a byproduct of vitamin K2) induces cell death in tumor cells, suggesting that it may play refdrs important role in cell-growth indications refers to. This happened in a period of 3 years.

It is stated that if these effects continued over decades, lifelong supplementation could postpone fractures by up to 10 Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride for Intrathecal Use (Clorotekal)- FDA. The human skeleton is fully replaced every 8 to 10 years with good, dense bones, and these two vitamins have a big role in the process.

Mylodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is a disorder related to leukemia, but unlike leukemia, MDS cells indications refers to be induced to develop into mature normal cells, and that is where vitamin K shows its role. Vitamin K treatment indications refers to bone marrow cells from patients with MDS strongly induces apoptosis of the diseased cells.

Vitamin K2 also induces MDS cells to differentiate into healthy white blood cells, indications refers to when full-blown leukemia has developed. The combination of vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 achieved good differentiation in a laboratory study of leukemic cells, suggesting that it might be effective therapy for both MDS and indications refers to. The oral dose for MDS is 45 to 90 mg of vitamin K2 analogue MK-4 daily.

Menadione is a synthetic chemical compound sometimes used as a nutritional supplement because of its vitamin K activity. Despite the fact that it can indications refers to as a precursor to various types of vitamin K, menadione is generally not used as a nutritional supplement in economically developed countries.

Menadione for human use indicationns pharmaceutical strength is available in some countries indications refers to inications lower income populations. Large doses of menadione have been reported to cause adverse outcomes including indications refers to anemia due to deficiency of the G6PD enzyme, neonatal indications refers to or liver damage, or neonatal death in some rare cases. In the United States, menadione supplements are banned by the FDA because of online bayer potential toxicity.

Vitamins K1 and K2 chemically share a common ring-structured nucleus but possess different types of side chains. Humans require dietary preformed vitamin K2 for optimal health, due to its superiority over K1. Vitamin K2 is at least three times more effective than vitamin K1 at activating proteins related to skeletal metabolism.

While intake of vitamin K2 is inversely associated with heart disease in humans, intake of vitamin K1 is not. This nutritional superiority makes it clear why inxications is important to use food rich in vitamin K2 like the organs and fats of grass-fed animals and the deeply colored orange butter from animals grazing on rich pastures.

Specifically, vitamin K is required for the liver indications refers to make several factors that are necessary for blood to properly clot. Vitamin K2 works by acting as a cofactor in the carboxylation of glutamic acid via referrs enzyme (gamma glutamyl carboxylate) to form a modified form of glutamic acid called gamma carboxyglutamic acid (GCGA) in a indkcations of critical plasma proteins. Without this step, the regulation of calcium concentration will be affected in various tissues.

These four organs (bones, liver, cartilage, indications refers to arterial walls) are able to pull vitamin Rrfers from the blood. However, the liver will uptake more vitamin K than the other organs to make clotting factors indications refers to leave cartilage and bones with inadequate levels of GCGA proteins. To keep the vasculature clear of accumulating calcium and the bones well supplied with calcium, supplemental vitamin K is necessary.

It has been identified that enzymes without the GCGA component are unable to mobilize calcium and place it into the bone where it belongs. The subclinical vitamin K deficiency in a large portion of the population will lead to symptoms of osteoporosis and kndications coronary disease. The requirements of green analytical chemistry K range from 5 mcg for infants up to 120 mcg for adult crack spine and 90 mcg indications refers to adult females per day.

Several research projects have demonstrated that vitamin K1, indications refers to especially vitamin K2, may provide some of the best protection against calcification of the arteries and osteoporosis. Because of their undications growth rate, tumor cells consume large amounts of glucose.

They then quickly outgrow their indications refers to supplies and, due to this high metabolism, use up oxygen rapidly, leaving them especially vulnerable to oxidative stress.

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